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How to Unit Test AngularJS Events with Karma
Events are useful for communicating changes across components while keeping them decoupled. AngularJS provides a nice interface for this, including $broadcast and $on for publishing and subscribing. Luckily, these aspects of an application can be easily tested using Karma.
Say there is a controller that broadcasts an event when a button is clicked. The event declares that an action has occurred, and it includes some data from the context of that action. A typical chunk of controller code to do such a thing would look something like this:
And let’s say the button code looks like this:
To test this, we can write a simple Karma test:
There are a few things going on here:
- myDirective is compiled and instantiated. This creates compiledDirective , which is a live instance of the directive. By “live,” I mean that it is running in the browser just as it would if it were a part of the application. This allows tests to interact with directives through the browser and trigger reactions naturally with minimal mocking.
- ‘$on’ is used to register a subscription for the event before the test interacts with the component. Since data is initialized to null , if the event does not fire, data will not be set.
- find('.app-button') is using a CSS class selector to target the button element. This returns a jqLite object, which has a similar API as a jQuery object. Once the element is brought into scope, the test can interact with it. For example, click() .
- Finally, an assertion framework like Chai can be used to confirm that the event fired and populated data.attributeOne .
Usually, broadcasting an event is only half of the equation. In order to test the consumer side of the event cycle, a similar process can be followed. Let’s assume that there is a subscriber that is going to set a value to show a dialog when the event occurs.
The dialog template is simple and toggles a class based on the value of ctrl.hasEventHappened .
This functionality can be tested by a spec that broadcasts the event and asserts that the dialog is open.
This is what’s happening here:
- The dialog is selected using find and a CSS class selector.
- A check is done to confirm that the dialog is hidden prior to the event.
- $broadcast is used to create a fake event and trigger the dialog.
- Finally, the test asserts that the dialog has the is-open class after the event cycle completes.
These tests turn out to be pretty solid. A spec is able to interact with a directive element and make some assertions with only a couple lines of code.
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